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These are the steps that introduced me and my husband to what financial independence is and for that I am eternally grateful. But a lot of important considerations get looked over if you just find a list of the steps…
The post The Baby Steps Explained, And Why They Work! appeared first on Modern Frugality.
You’ve tried debt payoff strategies, balance transfers, consolidation, and evenÂ debt management; you’ve begged your creditors, liquidated your assets, and pestered your friends and families for any money they can afford, but after all of that, you still have more debt than you can handle.
Once you reach the end of your rope, the options that remain are not as forgiving asÂ debt managementÂ and they’ll do much more damage to yourÂ credit scoreÂ than debt payoff strategies. However, if you’ve tried other forms ofÂ debt reliefÂ and nothing seems to work, all that remains is to consider debt settlement and bankruptcy.
Debt settlement is a very good way to clear your debt. It’s one of the cheapest and most complete ways to eradicateÂ credit cardÂ debtÂ and can help with most other forms ofÂ unsecured debtÂ as well. Bankruptcy, on the other hand, is aÂ last resortÂ option for debtors who can’t meet thoseÂ monthly paymentsÂ and have exhausted all other possibilities.
But which option is right for you, should you be looking for aÂ debt settlement companyÂ or aÂ bankruptcy attorney?
Similarities Between Bankruptcy and Debt Settlement
Firstly, let’s look at the similarities between bankruptcy and debt settlement, which are actually few and far between. In fact, beyond the fact that they are bothÂ debt reliefÂ options that can clear your debt, there are very few similarities, with the main one being that they both impact yourÂ credit scoreÂ quite heavily.
A bankruptcy can stay on yourÂ credit reportÂ for up to 10 years and do a lot of damage when it is applied. It may take several years before you can successfully apply for loans and high credit lines again, and it will continue to impact your score for years to come.
Debt settlement is not quite as destructive, but it can reduce yourÂ credit scoreÂ in a similar way and last for up to 7 years. Accounts do not disappear in the same way as when you pay them in full, so future creditors will know that the accounts were settled for less than the balance and this may scare them away.
In both cases, you could lose a couple hundred points off yourÂ credit score, but it all depends on how high your score is to begin with, as well as how many accounts you have on yourÂ credit reportÂ and how extensive the settlement/bankruptcy process is.
Differences Between Bankruptcy and Debt Settlement
The main two types of bankruptcy are Chapter 7 and Chapter 13. The former liquidates assets and uses the funds generated from this liquidation to pay creditors. The latter creates aÂ repayment planÂ with a goal of repaying all debts within a fixed period of time using an installment plan that suits the filer.
Debt settlement, on the other hand, is more of a personal process, the goal of which is to offer a reduced settlement sum to creditors andÂ debt collectors, clearing the debts with aÂ lump sum paymentÂ that is significantly less than the balance.
Chapter 7 BankruptcyÂ andÂ Chapter 13 Bankruptcy
When people think of bankruptcy, it’s often a Chapter 7 that they have in mind. With aÂ Chapter 7 bankruptcy, all non-exempt assets will be sold, and the money then used to pay lenders. There are filing costs and it’s advised that you hire aÂ bankruptcy attorneyÂ to ensure the process runs smoothly.
Chapter 7 bankruptcyÂ is quick and complete, typically finishing in 6 months and clearing mostÂ unsecured debtsÂ in this time. There is noÂ repayment planÂ to follow and no lawsuits or wage garnishment to worry about.
Chapter 13, on the other hand, focuses on aÂ repayment planÂ that typically spans up to 5 years. The debts are not wiped clear but are instead restructured in a way that the debtor can handle. This method of bankruptcy is typically more expensive, but only worthwhile for debtors who can afford to repay their debts.
Filing for bankruptcy is not easy and there is no guarantee you will be successful. There are strictÂ bankruptcy lawsÂ to follow and theÂ bankruptcy courtÂ must determine that you have exhausted all other options and have no choice but to file.
Bankruptcy will require you to see aÂ credit counselor, which helps to ensure that you don’t make the same mistakes in the future. This can feel like a pointless and demeaning requirement, as many debtors understand the rights and wrongs and got into a mess because of uncontrollable circumstances and not reckless spending, but sessions are short, cheap, and shouldn’t cause much stress.
HowÂ Debt Settlement Works
The goal of debt settlement is to get creditors to agree to aÂ settlement offer. This can be performed by the debtor directly, but it’s often done with help from aÂ debt settlement company.
The debt specialist may request that you stop making payments on your debts every month. This has two big benefits:
1. More Money
You will have more money in your account every month, which means you’ll have more funds to go towards debtÂ settlement offers.Â
The idea of making largeÂ lump sum paymentsÂ can seem alien to someone who has a lot of debt. After all, if you’re struggling to make $400 debt payments every month on over $20,000 worth of debt, how can you ever hope to get the $5,000 to $15,000 you need to clear those debts in full?
But if you stop making all payments and instead move that money to a secured account, you’ll have $4,800 extra at the end of the year, which should be enough to start making those offers and getting those debts cleared.
2. Creditor Panic
Another aspect of the debt settlement process that confuses debtors is the idea that creditors would be willing to accept reduced offers. If you have a debt worth $20,000 and are paying large amounts of interest every month, why would they accept a lump sum and potentially take a loss overall?
The truth is, if you keep makingÂ monthly payments, creditors will be reluctant to accept aÂ settled debtÂ offer. But as soon as you start missing those payments, the risk increases, and the creditor faces the very real possibility that they will need to sell that debt to aÂ collection agency. If you have a debt of $20,000, it may be sold for as little as $20 to $200, so if you come in with an offer of $10,000 before it reaches that point, they’ll snap your hand off!
Types of Debt
AÂ debt settlement programÂ works best when dealing withÂ credit cardÂ debt, but it can also help to clear loan debt,Â medical bills, and more. Providing it’s not government debt or secured debt, it will work.Â
With government debt, you need specific tax relief services, and, in most cases, there is no way to avoid it. With secured debt, the lender will simply take your asset as soon as you default.
Debt settlement companiesÂ may place some demanding restrictions on you, and in the short term, this will increase yourÂ total debtÂ and worsen yourÂ financial situation. In addition to requesting that you stop makingÂ monthly payments, they may ask that you place yourself on a budget, stop spending money on luxuries, stop acquiring new debt, and start putting every penny you have towards the settlement.
It can have aÂ negative impactÂ on your life, but the end goal is usually worth it, as you’ll beÂ debt-freeÂ within 5 years.
Pros andÂ Cons of Debt SettlementÂ and Bankruptcy
Neither of these processes are free or easy. With bankruptcy, you may pay up to $2,000 for Chapter 7 and $4,000 for Chapter 13 (including filing fees and legal fees) while debt settlement is charged as a fixed percentage of the debt or the money saved.Â
As mentioned already, both methods can also damage yourÂ credit score. But ultimately, they will clear your debts and the responsibilities that go with them. If you’ve been losing sleep because of your debt, this can feel like a godsendâa massive weight lifted off your shoulders.
It’s also worth noting thatÂ scamsÂ exist for both options, so whether you’reÂ filing bankruptcyÂ or choosing a debtÂ settlement plan, make sure you’re dealing with a reputable company/lawyer and are not being asked to pay unreasonable upfront fees. ReputableÂ debt settlement companiesÂ will provide you with aÂ free consultationÂ in the first instance, and you can use the NACBA directory to find a suitable lawyer.
Bankruptcy and Debt Settlement: The End Goal
For all the ways that these two options differ, there is one important similarity: They give you a chance to make aÂ fresh start. You can never underestimate the benefits of this, even if it comes with a reducedÂ credit scoreÂ and a derogatory mark that will remain on yourÂ credit reportÂ for years to come.
If you’re heavily in debt, it can feel like your money isn’t your own, your life isn’t secure, and your future is not certain. With bankruptcy and debt settlement, yourÂ credit scoreÂ and finances may suffer temporarily, but it gives you a chance to wipe the slate clean and start again.
What’s more, this process may take several years to complete and in the case of bankruptcy, it comes withÂ credit counseling. Once you make it through all of this, you’ll be more knowledgeable about debt, you’ll have a better grip on your finances, and your impulse control.Â
And even if you don’t, you’ll be forced to adopt a little restraint after the process ends as yourÂ credit scoreÂ will be too low for you to apply for newÂ personalÂ loansÂ and high limitÂ cards.
Other Options for Last DitchÂ Debt Relief
Many debtors preparing for debt settlement or bankruptcy may actually have more options than they think. For instance, bankruptcy is often seen as a get-out-of-jail-free card, an easy escape that you can use to your advantage whenever you have debts you don’t want to pay.
But that’s simply not the case and unless you have tried all other options and can prove that none of them have worked, your case may be thrown out. If that happens, you’ll waste money on legal and filing fees and will be sent back to the drawing board.
So, regardless of theÂ amount of debtÂ you have, make sure you’ve looked into the followingÂ debt reliefÂ options before you focus on debt settlement or bankruptcy.Â
AÂ debt consolidationÂ loanÂ is provided by a specialized lender. They pay off all your existing debts and give you a single large loan in return, one that has a lowerÂ interest rateÂ and a lowerÂ monthly payment.Â
Your debt-to-income ratio will improve, and you’ll have more money in your pocket at the end of the month. However, in exchange, you’ll be given a much longer-term, which means you’ll pay more interest over the life of the loan.
AÂ Debt ManagementÂ Plan
Debt managementÂ combinesÂ counseling servicesÂ withÂ debt consolidation. AÂ debt managementÂ planÂ requires you to continue making yourÂ monthly payment, only this will go to theÂ debt managementÂ company and not directly to the creditors. They will then distribute the money to your creditors.
You’ll be given aÂ monthly paymentÂ that you can manage, along with the budgeting advice you need to keep meeting those payments. In exchange, however, you’ll be asked to close all but oneÂ credit cardÂ (which can hurt yourÂ credit score) and if you miss a payment then your creditors may back out of the agreement.
Balance Transfer Card
If all your debts are tied intoÂ credit cards, you can use a balance transferÂ credit cardÂ to make everything more manageable. With a balance transferÂ credit card, you move one or more debts onto a new card, one that offers a 0% APR for a fixed period.Â
The idea is that you continue making yourÂ monthly payment, only because there is no interest, all the money goes towards the principal.
Home Equity Loans
If you have built substantial equity in your home then you can look into home equity loans and lines of credit. These are secured loans, which means there is a risk ofÂ repossessionÂ if you fail to keep up your payments, but for this, you’ll get a greatly reducedÂ interest rateÂ and a sum large enough to clear your debts.
Bottom Line: The Best Option
Debt settlement and bankruptcy are both considered to beÂ last resortÂ debt-reliefÂ options, but they couldn’t be more different from one another. Generally speaking, we would always recommend debt settlement first, especially if you have a lot of money tied up inÂ credit cardÂ debt.
If not, and you can’t bear the idea of spending several months ignoring your creditors, missing payments, and accumulatingÂ late fees, it might be time to consider bankruptcy. In any case, make sure you exhaust all other possibilities first.
Debt Settlement vs Bankruptcy: Which is Best? is a post from Pocket Your Dollars.
When I first connected with Julia and John, the Queens, NY couple was expecting their first child and grappling with some debt, a lack of savings and income prior to the baby’s arrival. The couple was basically living paycheck to paycheck and in need of some advice to break through that cycle.
We reconnected this month to see how they’ve been doing. Julia is now nearing the end of her third trimester. The baby is due to arrive in two months.
I was hoping that with a baby on the way the couple would have found some ways to chisel away their debt or bulk up savings. Unfortunately, fie months later, they’re more or less still in the same money boat.
But they did act upon a couple of my tips and are benefiting from the goodness of New York and their parents, which has their futures looking brighter.
First, John, who lacks a college degree and was struggling to find full-time work, is going back to school. Not to a college or university, but to a 9-month software boot camp in New York that’s going to give him the skills and network to become a software developer. His potential earnings in the first year in the market could be as much as $75,000 (based on some people I know who’ve gone through similar programs in New York.)
The program will be about $15,000, a fraction of what it would cost to earn a bachelor’s degree. John’s parents have agreed to loan him the money. The couple’s decided to place that $15,000 family loan in savings and, instead, take out a small student loan to pay for John’s school. I agree with that strategy, given that their family is about to increase in size and having some cash on hand will be very important.
Once John completes school and finds work, I’d recommend the couple prioritize the credit card debt by paying at least double the minimums each month. Be most aggressive with the highest interest credit card debt first. Their student loan will likely have a smaller interest rate and can be paid over a 10-year period, making the monthly minimums relatively manageable. Automate those payments as soon as possible and benefit from a 0.25% interest rate reduction when they do.
While they’re taking on more debt, I’m okay with it. Investing in John’s education is one of the best ways this couple can get ahead and better secure their finances in the future – so long as they commit to earning more and paying it down.
Ahead of that program starting, John’s also taken on a side hustle (per my advice). He’s been working a few shifts here and there at Julia’s company, working with special needs patients as a social aide, taking them to community and outdoor events.
Some other good news that’s developed since we last spoke is that New York State has enhanced its Family and Medical Leave Act by implementing Paid Family Leave. In the past, certain employers were only required to provide workers with their jobs back after taking a leave of absence for up to 12 weeks. Now, qualifying private employers must provide paid time off and a continuation of health insurance for 8 weeks in 2018.
This came as a surprise bonus for Julia, who was preparing for zero paid time off from her employer.
It would be my recommendation to use part or all of that extra money to pay down their high-interest credit card debt.
Once Julia returns to work after her maternity leave, her mother-in-law will be the go-to caretaker during the day, another huge help.
They’re fortunate to have free childcare from a trusted, loved one. With that very big expense covered and John’s schooling about to start, I feel confident that the couple’s future is a financially bright one.
The post Check-In: Expecting Couple Struggling with Debt, But Future Looks Bright appeared first on MintLife Blog.
The financial camps are divided between paying off your smallest first vs. your highest interest student loan. So whoâs right? Finance people can agree on a few things. Some debts like payday loans and IRS back taxes are worse than…
The post Which Student Loan Should You Pay First? appeared first on Modern Frugality.
Debt comes in all shapes and sizes. You can owe money to utility companies, banks, credit card providers, and the government. Thereâs student loan debt, credit card debt, mortgage debt, and much more. But what are the official categories of debt and how do the payoff strategies for these debts differ?
Categories of Debt
Debt is generally categorized into two simple forms: Secured and Unsecured. The former is secured against an asset, such as a car or loan, and means the lender can seize the asset if you fail to meet your obligations. Unsecured is not secured against anything, reducing the creditorâs control and limiting their options if the repayment terms are not met.
A secured debt provides the lender with some assurances and collateral, which means they are often prepared to provide better interest rates and terms. This is one of the reasons youâre charged astronomical rates for credit cards and short-term loans but are generally offered very favorable rates for home loans and car loans.
If the debtor fails to make payments on an unsecured debt, such as a credit card, then the debtor may file a judgment with the courts or sell it to a collection agency. In the first instance, itâs a lot of hassle without any guarantee. In the second, theyâre selling the debts for cents on the dollar and losing a lot of money. In either case, itâs not ideal, and to offset this they charge much higher interest rates and these rates climb for debtors with a poorer track record.
There is also something known as revolving debt, which can be both unsecured and secured. Revolving debt is anything that offers a continuous cycle of credit and repayment, such as a credit card or a home equity line of credit.Â
Mortgages and federal student loans may also be grouped into separate debts. In the case of mortgages, these are substantial secured loans that use the purchase as collateral. As for federal student loans, they are provided by the government to fund education. They are unsecured and there are many forgiveness programs and options to clear them before the repayment date.
What is a Collection Account?
As discussed above, if payments are missed for several months then the account may be sold to a debt collection agency. This agency will then assume control of the debt, contacting the debtor to try and settle for as much as they can. At this point, the debt can often be settled for a fraction of the amount, as the collection agency likely bought it very cheaply and will make a profit even if it is sold for 30% of its original balance.
Debt collectors are persistent as thatâs their job. They will do everything in their power to collect, whether that means contacting you at work or contacting your family. There are cases when they are not allowed to do this, but in the first instance, they can, especially if theyâre using these methods to track you down and they donât discuss your debts with anyone else.
No one wants the debt collectors after them, but generally, you have more power than they do and unless they sue you, thereâs very little they can do. If this happens to you, we recommend discussing the debts with them and trying to come to an arrangement. Assuming, that is, the debt has not passed the statute of limitations. If it has, then negotiating with them could invalidate that and make you legally responsible for the debt all over again.
Take a look at our guide to the statute of limitations in your state to learn more.
As scary as it can be to have an account in collections, itâs also common. A few years ago, a study found that there are over 70 million accounts in collections, with an average balance of just over $5,000.
Can Bankruptcy Discharge all Debts?
Bankruptcy can help you if you have more debts than you can repay. But itâs not as all-encompassing as many debtors believe.
Chapter 7 bankruptcy will discharge most of your debts, but it wonât touch child support, alimony or tax debt. It also wonât help you with secured debts as the lender will simply repossess or foreclose, taking back their money by cashing in the collateral. Chapter 13 bankruptcy works a little differently and is geared towards repayment as opposed to discharge. You get to keep more of your assets and in exchange you agree to a payment plan that repays your creditors over 3 to 5 years.
However, as with Chapter 7, you canât clear tax debts and you will still need to pay child support and alimony. Most debts, including private student loans, credit card debt, and unsecured loan debt will be discharged with bankruptcy.
Bankruptcy can seriously reduce your credit score in the short term and can remain on your credit report for up to 10 years, so itâs not something to be taken lightly. Your case will also be dismissed if you canât show that you have exhausted all other options.
Differences in Reducing Each Type of Debt
The United States has some of the highest consumer debt in the world. It has become a common part of modern life, but at the same time, we have better options for credit and debt relief, which helps to balance things out a little. Some of the debt relief options at your disposal have been discussed below in relation to each particular type of long-term debt.
The Best Methods for Reducing Loans
If youâre struggling with high-interest loans, debt consolidation can help. A debt consolidation company will provide you with a loan large enough to cover all your debts and in return, they will give you a single long-term debt. This will often have a smaller interest rate and a lower monthly payment, but the term will be much longer, which means youâll pay much more interest overall.
Debt management works in a similar way, only you work directly with a credit union or credit counseling agency and they do all the work for you, before accepting your money and then distributing it to your creditors.
Both forms of debt relief can also help with other unsecured debts. They bring down your debt-to-income ratio, leave you with more disposable income, and allow you to restructure your finances and get your life back on track.
The Best Methods for Reducing Credit Cards
Debt settlement is the ultimate debt relief option and can help you clear all unsecured debt, with many companies specializing in credit card debt.Â
Debt settlement works best when you have lots of derogatory marks and collections, as this is when creditors are more likely to settle. They can negotiate with your creditors for you and clear your debts by an average of 40% to 60%. You just need to pay the full settlement amount and the debt will clear, with the debt settlement company not taking their cut until the entire process has been finalized.
A balance transfer can also help with credit card debt. A balance transfer credit card gives you a 0% APR on all transfers for between 6 and 18 months. Simply move all of your credit card balances into a new balance transfer card and then every cent of your monthly payment will go towards the principal.
The Best Methods for Reducing Secured Debts
Secured debt is a different beast, as your lender can seize the asset if they want to. This makes them much less susceptible to settlement offers and refinancing. However, they will still be keen to avoid the costly foreclosure/repossession process, so contact them as soon as youâre struggling and see if they can offer you anything by way of a grace period or reduced payment.
Most lenders have some form of hardship program and are willing to be flexible if it increases their chances of being repaid in full.
Different Types of Debt is a post from Pocket Your Dollars.
The post Convince Your Spouse You Need To Get Out Of Debt appeared first on Penny Pinchin' Mom.
Need to convince your spouse you need to get out of debt? Â You can’t just tell him or her. Â You need to address it in the right way.
Getting out of debt and taking control of your finances is important to your relationship. Â Whether you are just starting out or have been together for 25 or Â more years, you have to be in the same page financially, or you will be destined for failure.
So, what happens if your spouse is a spender and you are a saver? Â Or, what do you do if you want to create a budget you both contribute to, but your spouse refuses to help? Â What happens if you want to get out of debt, but your spouse thinks you are fine?
These are questions I get over and over again from readers just like you. Â Get my answers on what you can do if you find yourself in any of the following situations.
CONVINCE YOUR SPOUSE YOU NEED TO GET OUT OF DEBT
I WANT TO GET OUT OF DEBT, BUT MY SPOUSE DOES NOT AGREE
This is a very common scenario. Â One person feels that there is too much debt and their spouse or partner thinks that they are doing just fine. Â What do you do in this situation? Â I’ve got the things you can try to help get your spouse or partner onto the same page as you.
SET A DATE
Timing is everything when you are discussing debt with your spouse or partner. Â If you casually mention it over dinner, it may not actually resonate that you are serious.
Set up a date with your significant other. Â Carving out time to have a real, honest discussion about your finances can make all the difference.
USE “WE” Â – NOT “YOU”
When you sit down to talk, your money and finances should be discussed as “we” and never as “you.”
For instance, instead of saying “You are spending more than you make” – say “We are just spending a bit too much money lately.”
When you are in a relationship, your money is no longer yours and mine, it is ours. Â Addressing your debt should be addressed in the same way.
NAGGING NOT ALLOWED
If, after you have this discussion, your spouse is still reluctant to get started, take a break. Â Circle back around a few weeks later and have another discussion.
The thing you do not want to do is nag him or her about it. Â That will create more resentment and be much less successful in developing a plan you both can follow.
MAKE SURE YOU CAN STILL HAVE FUN
The main reason many people are reluctant to get out of debt is they fear that they will not be able to spend any money on anything at all. Â That does not have to be the case.
Talk to your partner about your budget and show him or her how you can still leave money for dinner out or the weekly movie dates you love to have together.
One way that my husband and I do this is that we have a “mad money” fund. Â This is money which can be spent on whatever we each want. Â We designate an envelope for each of us. Â When our money is gone, we are done spending. Â We actually have turned this into a challenge to see which of us can actually go the longest without spending any money! Â After a few months, we agreed that we both won and then turned around and used that money in planning a Disney vacation.
You are a team and together you will need to work up your budget so it works for both of you.
BE WILLING TO COMPROMISE
When you sit down for your meeting, don’t have everything planned out. Â As tempting as it might be to have the budget all mapped out and show it, that may actually result in your partner being more resistant.
When you talk, take the time to truly listen to what your partner has to say. Â Once he or she voices concerns, you will also have a chance to make your case.
When you show that you really do want to listen and work together on this journey, he or she may be much more willing to join you. Â However, if you shut him or her out of the conversation, you will not be successful.
CREATE A PLAN TOGETHER
Once you both are on the same page with your debt, it is time to make a debt payoff plan. It should include a list of your debts and a way to track your success.Â You will work together to achieve your financial goals.Â Go through everything together and make sure you both agree to how much you will pay on the debt, your budget and much more.
Putting it in writing will help you both focus on the big picture and give you accountability to one another.Â Before you know it, you will be on the path to financial freedom.
The post Convince Your Spouse You Need To Get Out Of Debt appeared first on Penny Pinchin' Mom.
Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in March 2020, life and business certainly have changed. If you’re self-employed full-time or earn business income on the side of a day job, you may be wondering what economic relief applies to you.
Let's review what relief Congress passed to help self-employed Americans cope with financial challenges. I’ll review ten key stimulus benefits that apply to solopreneurs and small businesses.
If you're experiencing economic hardship due to the coronavirus, using some of these new regulations may be the ticket to managing your personal and business finances better.
10 ways the self-employed can get financial relief
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act became law on March 27 as the largest stimulus legislation in American history since the New Deal in the 1930s. Here are ten ways it provides relief for individual solopreneurs and small business owners.
1. Getting lower interest rates
On March 3, the central U.S. bank, also known as the Federal Reserve or Fed, made a surprising emergency interest rate cut of half a percentage point. That’s the largest single rate cut since the financial crisis of 2008. While this move wasn’t part of a coronavirus stimulus package, it was an aggressive cut meant to prepare the economy for problems the pandemic was expected to cause.
An economic recovery could take a few years, which likely means the Fed rate will stay near zero through 2023.
In mid-September, the Fed reiterated its promise to keep interest rates near zero until the economy improves and the unemployment rate declines. They indicated that a recovery could take a few years, which likely means the Fed rate stays near zero through 2023.
While savers never celebrate low interest rates, they're beneficial to borrowers. In general, the financing charge on variable-rate credit cards and lines of credit goes down in lockstep with interest rates. Carrying a balance on your personal and business credit cards may be slightly less expensive, depending on your card issuer and type. For instance, if your card’s annual percentage rate or APR is 20%, your adjusted rate could go down to 19.5%.
If you have a fixed-rate credit card, the APR doesn’t change no matter what happens in the economy or with federal interest rates. Also, note that if you pay off your balance in full each month, a credit card’s APR is irrelevant because you don’t pay interest on purchases.
2. Having more time to file taxes
Earlier this year, the due date for filing and paying 2019 federal taxes was postponed from April 15, 2020, to July 15, 2020. You didn't have to be sick or negatively impacted by COVID-19 to qualify for this federal tax delay. It applied to any person or business entity with taxes due on April 15, 2020.
If you missed the tax filing deadline, be sure to request an extension.
Most businesses make estimated tax payments each quarter. Those payment dates have shifted, too. The 2020 schedule gives you more time as follows:
- The first quarter was due on July 15, 2020, which changed from April 15, 2020
- The second quarter was due on July 15, 2020, which changed from April 15, 2020
- The third quarter was due on September 15, 2020
- The fourth quarter is due on January 15, 2021
Individuals and businesses can request an automatic extension to delay filing federal taxes. But it doesn’t give you more time to pay what you owe for 2019, only more time to submit your tax form—until October 15, 2020.
If you missed the tax filing deadline, be sure to request an extension. Individuals must file IRS Form 4868, and most incorporated businesses use IRS Form 7004.
However, depending on where you live, you may have to pay state income taxes, which have not been postponed. If you need a state tax filing extension, check with your state’s tax agency to determine what’s possible.
Taxes due on any date other than April 15, 2020—such as sales tax, payroll tax, or estate tax—don’t qualify for relief.
3. Getting more time to contribute to retirement accounts
You typically have until April 15 or the date of a tax extension to make traditional IRA or Roth IRA contributions for the prior year. But since the CARES Act postponed the federal tax filing deadline, you also have until July 15 or October 15, 2020 (if you requested an extension) to make IRA contributions for 2019.
However, this deadline doesn't apply to retirement accounts you may have with an employer, such as a 401(k). Nor does it apply to self-employed accounts, such as a solo 401(k) or SEP-IRA, which correspond to the calendar year.
4. Getting more time to contribute to an HSA
Like with an IRA, you typically have until April 15 or the date of a tax extension to make HSA contributions for the prior year. Under the CARES Act, you now have until July 15 or October 15, 2020, to make HSA contributions for 2019.
To qualify for an HSA, you must be covered by a qualifying high-deductible health plan. In early March, the IRS issued a notice that a high-deductible health plan may cover COVID-19 testing and treatment and telehealth services before meeting your deductible. And just as before the coronavirus, you can pay for medical testing and treatment using funds in your HSA.
5. Delaying tax on retirement withdrawals
While you typically must pay income tax on retirement account withdrawals that weren’t previously taxed, the good news is that for a period, you can delay or avoid tax altogether. The CARES Act gives you two options for withdrawals made in 2020:
- Repay a hardship distribution within three years to your retirement account. You can replace the funds slowly or all at once, with no change to your annual contribution limit. If you take money out but return it within three years, it’s like you never took a distribution.
- Pay taxes on a hardship distribution from your retirement account evenly over three years. If you can’t pay back your distribution, you can ease your tax burden by paying one-third of your liability for three years.
Since withdrawing contributions from a Roth retirement account doesn’t trigger income taxes, it’s a good idea to tap a Roth before a traditional retirement account when you have the option.
6. Skipping early withdrawal penalties
Most retirement accounts impose a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you take make withdrawals before age 59.5. Under the CARES Act, if you have a coronavirus-related hardship, the penalty is waived.
Under the CARES Act, if you have a coronavirus-related hardship, the penalty is waived.
For instance, if you, your spouse, or a child gets diagnosed with COVID-19 or have financial challenges due to being laid off, quarantined, or closing a business, you qualify for this penalty exemption. You can withdraw up to $100,000 of your retirement account balance during 2020 without penalty. However, income taxes would still be due in most cases.
The no-penalty rule applies to workplace retirement plans, such as 401(k)s and 403(b)s. It also applies to IRAs, such as traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and SEP-IRAs.
Since you make after-tax contributions to Roth accounts, you can withdraw them at any time (which was also the case before the CARES Act). However, the earnings portion of a Roth is subject to income tax if you withdraw it before age 59.5.
7. Getting larger retirement plan loans
Some workplace retirement plans, such as 401(k)s and 403(b)s, permit loans. Typically, you can borrow 50% of your vested account balance up to $50,000 and repay it with interest over five years.
You can delay the repayment period for a retirement plan loan for up to one year.
For retirement plans that allow loans, the CARES Act doubles the limit to 100% of your vested balance in the plan up to $100,000. It applies to loans you take from your account until late September 2020, for coronavirus-related financial needs.
You can delay the repayment period for a retirement plan loan for up to one year. For example, if you have $20,000 vested in your 401(k), you could take a $20,000 loan on September 30, 2020, and delay the repayment term until September 30, 2021. You’d have payments stretched over five years, ending on September 30, 2026. Any amount not repaid by the deadline would be subject to tax and a 10 percent early withdrawal penalty.
Note that individual retirement accounts—such as traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and SEP-IRAs—don’t allow participants to take loans, only hardship distributions.
8. Suspending student loan payments.
Starting on March 13, 2020, most federal student loans went into automatic forbearance until September 30, 2020, due to the CARES Act. On August 8, the suspension of student loan payments was extended through December 31, 2020.
On August 8, the suspension of student loan payments was extended through December 31, 2020.
The suspension covers the following types of loans:
- Direct Loans that are unsubsidized or subsidized
- Direct PLUS Loans
- Direct Consolidation Loans
- Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL)
- Federal Perkins Loans
Note that FFEL loans owned by a private lender or Perkins loans held by your education institution don’t qualify for automatic forbearance. However, you may have the option to consolidate them into a Direct Loan, which would be eligible for forbearance. Just make sure that once the suspension ends, your new consolidated interest rate wouldn’t rise significantly.
During forbearance, qualifying loans don’t accrue additional interest. Even if you have federal student loans in default because you haven’t made payments, zero percent interest applies during the suspension period.
Additionally, missed payments during the suspension don’t get reported to the credit bureaus and can’t hurt your credit. Qualifying payments you skip also count toward any federal loan repayment or forgiveness plan you’re enrolled in.
However, if you want to continue making student loan payments during the suspension period, you can. With zero percent interest, the amount you pay gets applied to your principal student loan balance, enabling you to get out of debt faster.
With zero percent interest, the amount you pay gets applied to your principal student loan balance, enabling you to get out of debt faster.
If you’re not sure what type of student loan you have or the pros and cons of consolidation, contact your loan servicer. Even if your student loans are with private lenders or schools, they may offer relief if you request it.
9. Having Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans forgiven
The PPP is part of the CARES Act, and it supports small businesses, organizations, and solopreneurs facing economic hardship created by the pandemic. The program began providing relief in early April 2020, and the application window ended in early August 2020.
Participating PPP lenders coordinated with the Small Business Administration (SBA) to offer loans to businesses in operation by February 15, 2020, with fewer than 500 employees. Loan amounts could be up to 2.5 times the average monthly payroll up to $10 million; however, annual salaries were capped at $100,000.
For a solopreneur, the maximum PPP loan was $20,833 if your 2019 net profit was at least $100,000. The calculation is: $100,000 / 12 months x 2.5 = $20,833.
When you spend at least 60% on payroll and 40% on rent, mortgage interest, and utilities, you can have those amounts forgiven from repayment. Payroll includes payments to yourself, but you can’t cover benefit costs, such as retirement contributions, or payments to independent contractors.
In other words, a solopreneur could have received a PPP loan for up to $20,833, paid the entire amount to themselves, and not repaid it by having the load forgiven. Using a PPP loan for qualifying expenses turns it into a grant.
The best part about PPP loan forgiveness is that it won’t qualify as federal taxable income. Some states that charge income tax have indicated that they won’t tax forgiven amounts.
However, if you have employees, the PPP forgiveness calculations and requirements are more complex. For example, you must maintain reasonable salaries and wages. If you decrease them by more than 25% for any employee (including yourself) who made less than $100,000 in 2019, your forgiveness amount will be reduced.
PPP loan forgiveness also depends on keeping any full-time employees on your payroll. But if you had employees who left your company voluntarily, requested a cut in hours, or got fired for cause during the pandemic, your loan forgiveness amount won’t be reduced for those situations.
The best part about PPP loan forgiveness is that it won’t qualify as federal taxable income. Some states that charge income tax have indicated that they won’t tax forgiven amounts.
However, not all states have issued their rules on taxing PPP forgiveness. So be sure to get guidance if you live in a state with income tax.
You must complete a PPP Loan Forgiveness Application and get approved by your lender to qualify for forgiveness. The paperwork should come from your lender, or you can download it from the SBA website at SBA.gov. Most PPP borrowers have from six months after loan disbursement or until the end of 2020 to spend the funds.
The forgiveness application explains what documents you must include, and they vary depending on whether you have employees. Once you submit your paperwork, your lender has 60 days to decide how much of your PPP loan can be forgiven.
If some or all of a PPP loan isn't forgiven, you typically must repay it within five years at a 1 percent fixed interest rate. You don't have to start making payments for ten months after loan disbursement, but interest will accrue during a deferral period.
10. Getting SBA loans
In addition to PPP loans, the Small Business Administration (SBA) offers several loans for businesses and solopreneurs facing economic hardship caused by a disaster, including the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) can be up to $2 million and repaid over 30 years at an interest rate of 3.75 percent. You can use these funds for payroll and other operating expenses.
- SBA Express Bridge Loans gives borrowers up to $25,000 for help overcoming a temporary loss of revenue. However, you must have an existing relationship with an SBA Express lender.
- SBA Debt Relief is a program that helps you make payments on existing SBA loans for up to six months.
Depending on your state, you may qualify for unemployment assistance, which allows self-employed people, who typically are ineligible for unemployment benefits to get them for a period.
This isn’t a complete list of all the economic relief available for small businesses and solopreneurs. There are federal tax initiatives, funds from local and state governments, and help from private organizations that you may find by doing a search online.
How to manage money in uncertain times
When it comes to surviving uncertainty, such as how COVID-19 will affect the economy, those who have emergency savings will feel much less financial stress than those who don’t. That’s why it’s essential to maintain a cash reserve of at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses in an FDIC-insured bank savings account.
If you don’t need to dip into your emergency fund, continue shoring it up when possible. If you don’t have a cash reserve, accumulate savings by cutting non-essential expenses, and even temporarily pausing contributions to retirement accounts. That’s a better option than succumbing to panic and tapping your retirement funds early.
If you don’t need to dip into your emergency fund, continue shoring it up when possible.
If you find yourself in a cash crunch, contact your creditors before dipping into any retirement accounts you have. Many lenders will be willing to work with you to suspend payments or modify existing loan terms temporarily.
RELATED: How to Reduce Money Anxiety—Compassionate Advice from a Finance Pro
My new book, Money-Smart Solopreneur: A Personal Finance System for Freelancers, Entrepreneurs, and Side-Hustlers, covers many strategies to earn more, manage variable income, and create an automatic money system so you can strengthen your financial future. It’s a great resource if you’re thinking about earning side income or have already started a business.
Many economic factors that affect your personal and business finances aren’t under your control. Instead of worrying, look around, and figure out how you can create more income or cut unnecessary expenses. Working on tasks that you can control gives you more clarity and helps manage stress in uncertain times.
Have you ever wondered about the uses of a credit card vs. a debit card? It’s likely you have both types of cards in your wallet at this very moment, and you’re given the option to choose one of themâsometimes in a matter of secondsâevery time you make a purchase. Still, you have lingering uncertainty about whether you’re making the best choice… and that same question pops into the back of your mind every time you buy something: “Should I use a credit card or debit card?”
Being uncertain about the difference between a credit card and debit card or the best time to use either is a common dilemma. The better you understand the benefits of eachâbeyond the fact they offer a way to access money without having to carry cash or a checkbook aroundâthe savvier a spender you’ll become.
Managing revolving credit vs. a bank account balance
Credit cards and debit cards both offer a convenient way to pay for things, but they work quite differently behind the scenes. As a result, they each appeal to different types of consumers, says Lou Haverty, financial analyst and founder of Financial Analyst Insider.
A credit card is a form of revolving credit. When you spend with your credit card you are borrowing, and you pay interest if you carry a balance, Haverty says. A debit card, by contrast, is linked to a bank accountâusually a checking accountâand the money is withdrawn as soon as you make the transaction, typically using a PIN.
A difference between credit cards and debit cards is that with a credit card, the exact amount you can spend depends on your credit limit and the balance you are currently carrying on the card, Haverty explains. If you have a $1,000 credit limit and a $600 balance from previous purchases, you can continue to charge an additional $400. If you’ve reached your credit limit, you won’t be able to use the card for more purchases until you pay off at least part of the balance. You owe a minimum payment each month.
When considering credit card vs. debit card, know that most credit cards carry an interest rate, expressed as an annual percentage rate (APR), which is essentially what you pay to borrow. You’ll have to pay interest on that $600 balance mentioned above if you carry the balance from month to month. âCredit cards require a responsible approach to your personal finances because you have the ability to spend beyond what you might have as cash in your bank account,” Haverty says.
A difference between credit cards and debit cards is that with a debit card, funds are pulled directly from the balance you have in the checking account to which the card is linked. In a traditional account setup, you can’t spend more than what you have in the account, which helps reduce the chance of racking up debt. If your account offers overdraft protection, you may be able to spend more than your account balance by leveraging funds from a different, linked bank account.
âCredit cards require a responsible approach to your personal finances because you have the ability to spend beyond what you might have as cash in your bank account.”
Knowing the requirements for each card
Another key difference between a credit card and a debit card is the criteria you’ll need to meet for each. âGetting approved for a credit card is usually dependent on your personal credit score. The higher your credit score, the more likely you are to be approved,” Haverty says. âIf you have a lower credit score, you may still get approved, but you might have a lower credit limit.”
Patricia Stallworth, certified financial planner and money coach, says that in addition to your credit history, factors such as your employment status could play a role in credit card approval.
When analyzing credit cards vs. debit cards, consider that a debit card is typically issued automatically when you open a checking account. This process usually requires some personal information, such as a Social Security number, driver’s license, employment information and valid email address. A deposit may also be needed to fund the account and complete the application. Then stay tuned for your debit card in the mail!
When should I use credit vs. debit?
While it’s easy to have credit card vs. debit card on the mind, there are some scenarios in which using either a debit card or a credit card could fit the bill, depending on your financial needs and goals. Use the outline below as a guide for when the question of “When should I use credit vs. debit?” comes up:
Use your debit card if…
- You’re new to using a card to make purchases. Until you know you have the discipline to control your spending with a card, a debit card could be the way to go, as it’s a great tool for ensuring you don’t charge more than you can afford. âDebit cards are great for everyday purchases that you have budgeted for because the money comes directly out of your account,” Stallworth says.
- You want cash back without the fees. If your debit card is linked to a checking account that offers rewards, Stallworth says you may have rewards-earning potential without the hassle of fees. âWhile there is generally no cost to participate in debit card rewards programs, the costs and fees may be higher with some credit card programs,” she adds. For instance, Discover Cashback Debit charges no fees1 and allows you to earn 1% cash back on up to $3,000 in debit card purchases each month.2
Why should credit cards have all the fun?
Now you can earn cash back with your debit card.
Discover Bank, Member FDIC
- You have debt you can’t pay off. When should I use credit vs. debit? âIf you’re struggling to manage or get out of debt, a debit card should be your ‘go-to card,’” Stallworth says. “You can’t get out of debt if you keep charging.”
- You want cash at the register. If you still like to have cash in your wallet, consider this difference between credit cards and debit cards: Most retail stores will allow you to get cash at the register when you pay with your debit card. âA credit card will most likely charge you a cash advance fee if that feature is available,” Haverty says.
“Debit cards are great for everyday purchases that you have budgeted for because the money comes directly out of your account.”
Use your credit card if…
- You want product coverage.Â Some credit cards come with purchase protection, which makes them a great option for online and large purchases, Stallworth says. “If I have a dispute with a merchant, I have more leverage with a large credit card company behind me.”
- You’re trying to build (or rebuild) your credit. âYou will need a single credit card with a small limit that you pay off in full each month to build a credit history,” Haverty says. A key difference between credit cards and debit cards is that debit card usage can’t help you build a credit history. A debit card can help you build strong budgeting skills so you’re better prepared to transition to a credit card.
- You want to earn travel rewards. If you’re debating credit card vs. debit card and are focused on travel, consider that credit card rewards programs may offer robust rewards in a specific category, like travel, Stallworth says. While it’s always important to read the fine print (so you’re not paying more than you intend in fees or interest rate charges just to get rewards), you could find a credit card that offers opportunities to earn free flights and pay less for checked baggageâjust for using the card regularly.
How to use both cards to maximize your finances
Now that you understand which circumstances might be best to use a credit card vs. debit card, you can make the point-of-purchase decision of “When should I use credit vs. debit?” a little easier. It really depends on the goals you have laid out for your personal finances.
Get comfortable using both financial tools for their respective features. But be sure to stick to your budget, and don’t accidentally overspend from your bank account or charge more than you can afford to pay in full by your credit card’s monthly due date. When you learn to confidently use both of these cards to your advantage, you can enjoy all the various perks and protectionsâtimes two!
1 Outgoing wire transfers are subject to a service charge. You may be charged a fee by a non-Discover ATM if it is not part of the 60,000+ ATMs in our no-fee network.
2 ATM transactions, the purchase of money orders or other cash equivalents, cash over portions of point-of-sale transactions, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) payments (such as Apple Pay Cash), and loan payments or account funding made with your debit card are not eligible for cash back rewards. In addition, purchases made using third-party payment accounts (services such as VenmoÂ® and PayPal, who also provide P2P payments) may not be eligible for cash back rewards. Apple, the Apple logo and Apple Pay are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
The post The Difference Between Credit Cards and Debit Cards: Explainedâââ appeared first on Discover Bank – Banking Topics Blog.
Happy New Year! With the fresh new year ahead of us, now is the perfect time to take stock of your goals for 2020.
What are your goals for 2020? Why these goals? What steps will you be taking to achieve these goals?
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